Energy and nutrients

This area covers: energy; energy balance; energy and nutrients (including fibre) and nutritional needs throughout life.

Energy and nutrients

Food and drinks provide energy and nutrients in different amounts, they have important functions in the body and people require different amounts.

Energy and nutrients are provided by the diet, i.e. the food and drinks that are consumed.  Nutrients, as well as fibre and water, have important functions.

Knowing the sources of energy and nutrients is important in following healthy eating guidelines and meeting the dietary reference values.

This area covers:

  • energy;
  • energy balance;
  • energy and nutrients (including fibre);
  • nutritional needs throughout life.

Energy

  • An important aspect of understanding and applying the principles of nutrition and health is energy and energy balance. To introduce the topic to pupils show the Energy presentation. Use the Energy worksheet and either show on a screen or provide printed copies. Challenge the pupils complete the questions either as a class or working individually.
  • The DRV fact sheet can be used as a teacher resource to provide more detail and data on dietary reference values.
  • Provide a range of food packaging and/or products for the pupils to investigate; what information is given to the consumer? How does it help consumers make choices? What does the red, amber, green coding mean?
  • Use the Kahoot - energy requirements or a printed version of Kahoot - energy requirements Q&A test the pupils understanding of energy requirements.
11 - 14 YR
Energy presentation

A presentation looking at what energy is.

11 - 14 YR
Energy worksheet

A worksheet exploring energy.

11 - 14 YR
The DRV fact sheet

A fact sheet looking at the Dietary Reference Values.

11 - 14 YR
Energy requirements Kahoot Q&A

The questions and answers from an interactive quiz about energy requirements.

Energy balance

  • To introduce the concept of energy balance, show the Energy balance presentation. Task the pupils to produce an information leaflet, blog or article for your school website to encourage the whole school community to consider their energy balance and physical activity.
  • Challenge the pupils to consider the impact of energy in versus energy out using the Energy in, energy out presentation. Use the Energy expenditure in physical activity fact sheet to support this activity.
11 - 14 YR
Energy balance presentation

A presentation exploring energy balance.

11 - 14 YR
Energy out fact sheet

A fact sheet looking at energy expenditure in physical activity

11 - 14 YR
Energy in, energy out quiz

A quiz about energy intake and expenditure.

Energy and nutrients in the diet (including fibre)

  • Introduce pupils to macro and micronutrients using the Nutrients presentation. Task the pupils to complete the  Nutrients note sheet to help consolidate their learning.
  • Help the pupils link the Eatwell Guide food groups and nutrients by using the Where do nutrients come from? worksheet. This could be extended by asking the pupils to identify the food groups and nutrients in composite dishes, e.g. lamb Rogan josh with rice, vegetable lasagne and salad.
  • Provide the pupils with a set of statements found in the Nutrient matching cards and task them to select the correct match.
  • Complete the Kahoot - nutrients quiz and Kahoot nutrients Q&A to review and check understanding.
  • Compare a variety of similar food that has been modified, for instance to reduce the fat content, e.g. potato crisps that have been baked rather than fried. Discuss the claims that are made on the packaging and/or advertising. Review the food labels and compare the nutritional value. Ask the pupils what they notice about the ingredients and methods of cooking that have been used to make the products.
  • If time allows challenge the pupils to prepare a dish that provides a particular nutrient. For example they could produce a meat or vegetarian alternative dish that provides a source of iron. Ask the pupils to prepare a short explanation about the ingredients they have chosen and justify their choice. Use a nutritional analysis programme, such as Explore food, to create a nutritional analysis of their dish.
  • Use a nutritional analysis programme, such as Explore food, to investigate the energy and nutrient values of different food commodities. Complete the Energy and nutrients provided by different food worksheet and compare the food that have been analysed. Discuss with the pupils how this knowledge might influence ingredient selection.
  • Task the pupils to complete the Nutrient Matching activity. Print and cut out the two sets of cards (they could be laminated for future use) along with a set of Eatwell Guide food cards. Organise the pupils into small groups and ask them to match the nutrient, function and food source(s).
  • The nutrients provided by a food or dish depend on the serving size. Serving sizes depend on individual needs, for example age or lifestyle, meal occasion and type, and should always be considered when planning recipes and meals. Task the pupils to analyse two recipes using the Serving size worksheet and note down the energy (kilocalories/kilojoules) provided per person for each serving size.
  • To enhance the pupils knowledge of fibre in the diet show them the Dietary fibre presentation and then ask the pupils to complete the Dietary fibre worksheet.
  • Complete the Fibre line up activity. Organise the class into groups. Distribute the Fibre food cards. Explain to the pupils that they should discuss the order in which they think the foods should be placed to show the least to the most fibre. Compare each group and give the correct Fibre line up answers. Discuss why some foods are higher in fibre than others.
  • Display a range of different foods (or use the Fibre line up activity images). Ask the pupils to identify the food that they think provides dietary fibre.
  • Challenge the pupils to use a nutritional analysis programme such as Explore food to calculate and compare the fibre provided by a range of food; for example white and brown rice, white and granary bread, cornflakes and porridge oats. Ask the pupils to present this information on a series of graphs.
  • Provide the pupils with the Change for health worksheet and ask them to review a lasagne recipe and indicate the changes they would make to reduce total fat and increase fibre content. It time allows, challenge the pupils to make the standard and modified recipe and then conduct a sensory evaluation and nutritional analysis of the dishes.
  • To develop independent research and enable pupils to make their own choices around cooking for health, complete the Make it with mince challenge – higher fibre dishes.
  • To consolidate their learning challenge the pupils to complete the Dietary fibre Kahoot quiz and Dietary fibre Kahoot quiz answers.
  • The BNF Fun ways to fibre poster is a good teacher/adult resource and could also be used as part of a classroom display.

 

For more information about nutrition labelling, go to the Nutrition labelling area.

11 - 14 YR
Nutrients presentation

A presentation about micronutrients and macronutrients.

11 - 14 YR
Nutrients worksheet

A worksheet exploring micronutrients and macronutrients.

11 - 14 YR
Where do nutrients come from? worksheet

A worksheet investigating where nutrients come from.

11 - 14 YR
Nutrient matching cards

Cards matching up nutrients and their roles within health.

11 - 14 YR
Nutrients Kahoot Q&A

The questions and answers from an interactive quiz about nutrients.

11 - 14 YR
Energy and nutrients provided by different food worksheet

A worksheet exploring energy and nutrients provided by different foods.

11 - 14 YR
Nutrient matching activity

An activity in which different nutrients are matched with their roles.

multi-yr
Eatwell Guide food cards

Food cards with different foods from the Eatwell Guide.

11 - 14 YR
Serving size worksheet

A worksheet looking at the nutritional analysis of different serving sizes.

11 - 14 YR
Dietary fibre presentation

A presentation exploring dietary fibre.

11 - 14 YR
Dietary fibre worksheet

A worksheet about dietary fibre.

11 - 14 YR
Fibre line up activity

A set of cards that can be lined up in the order of fibre content per 100g.

11 - 14 YR
Fibre line up answers

The answers for the fibre line up activity.

11 - 14 YR
Change for health worksheet

A worksheet exploring the different ways a recipe can be modified to alter th...

11 - 14 YR
Make it with mince challenge - high fibre dishes

A guide to a challenge to create a mince based product with added fibre.

11 - 14 YR
Dietary fibre Kahoot Q&A

The questions and answers from an interactive quiz about dietary fibre.

11 - 14 YR
The BNF fun way to fibre poster

A resource looking at ways to increase the fibre content of the diet.

Nutritional needs throughout life

  • Ask the pupils to identify the different life stages and discuss why people might have different nutritional needs. Use the Nutritional needs through life presentation to introduce the specific needs at different life stages. Task the pupils to complete the Diet through life worksheet.
  • Ask the pupils to apply their learning about nutrients and their functions to plan, justify and make a suitable lunchtime meal for one of the identified life stages.
  • Task the pupils to complete the Nutritional Requirements chart which shows the nutrients required at different life stages, their sources and function.
  • Provide the pupils with Nutritional needs (energy) through life worksheet. The pupils can work in pairs to complete the worksheet identifying the key information about energy requirements for each group.
  • Plan a practical challenge for the pupils; identify a suitable age/stage for the pupils. Discuss the main nutrients that should be included in the diet. Prepare a savoury dish that is suitable for the selected age/stage and identify the main nutrients provided by the dish.
  • To develop independent research and enable pupils to make their own choices around cooking for health, complete the Make it with mince challenge – dishes for different life stages.
  • Divide the class into 6 groups and assign each group an age stage: pregnancy, infancy, childhood, adolescence, adult and older adults. Ask the pupils to use the Nutritional needs through life foundation presentation to create a summary of the nutritional needs and dietary considerations for their assigned age stage. Present the pupils with the challenge of planning a two course menu suitable for the age stage. The two course meal must consist of simple dishes which can be prepared within a 60 minute time frame. The group assigned to infancy could be asked to plan the menu for a breastfeeding mother rather than the infant. Invite each group to present their findings about the life stage they were assigned and introduce the draft menu plan. Allow time for the pupils to provide comments on the menu plan. The class should take notes from each group’s presentation to create a summary of the dietary needs for each life stage.
  • Discuss why it is important to have a nutritious breakfast before going to school or college. What food can be served? Challenge the pupils to make a range of breakfast dishes and invite parents and carers in to school to share the meal. Alternatively, work with the school caterer and organise for the pupils to plan and create a range of breakfast dishes to be served in the school cafeteria.
  • Challenge the pupils to complete the Nutritional needs through life Kahoot quiz. Use the Nutritional needs through life Kahoot answers to check their knowledge.
  • Organise the pupils to work in small groups or individually. Explain to the pupils that they are to create a mind map or set of flash cards to summarise what happens at each life stage. Include the important nutrients and give advice about the importance of healthy food choices.
  • Show the pupils the Dietary Reference Values presentation to explain nutritional requirements and Dietary Reference Values. Challenge the pupils to complete the DRVs Kahoot quiz or DRVs Kahoot Q&A to consolidate their learning.
  • The DRV fact sheet can be used as a teacher resource to provide more detail and data on dietary reference values.
  • Use the information and data from the presentation to plan meals for a day that will meet the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for energy for someone in your age group.
11 - 14 YR
Nutritional needs throughout life presentation

A presentation exploring the ways nutritional needs change throughout life.

11 - 14 YR
Diet through life worksheet

A worksheet looking at how the diet changes through life.

11 - 14 YR
Nutritional needs (energy) through life worksheet

A worksheet exploring how energy requirements change throughout life.

11 - 14 YR
Make it with mince challenge - dishes for different life stages

A guide to a challenge to create a mince based product for people at differen...

11 - 14 YR
DRVs Kahoot Q&A

The questions and answers from an interactive quiz about the dietary referenc...

11 - 14 YR
Dietary reference values presentation

A presentation on the dietary reference values.

11 - 14 YR
The DRV fact sheet

A fact sheet looking at the Dietary Reference Values.

Homework

Use the Food route diet and health journal for pupils up to 14 years as an extended piece of homework or cover work. There is a Certificate which can be awarded once pupils have completed all four Food route journals.

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